Luxembourg is a Member State of the Council of Europe (COE) and of the United Nations (UN), and has human rights obligations at the regional and universal levels.
Regional: European System
As a Member of the COE, Luxembourg has ratified the European Convention on Human Rights and is subject to the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights. Luxembourg has ratified the European Social Charter, but has not authorized the European Committee of Social Rights to decide collective complaints against it. Its human rights policies and practices are also monitored by the COE Commissioner for Human Rights, who identifies gaps in human rights protection, conducts country visits, engages in dialogue with States, and prepares thematic reports and advice on human rights obligations.
Luxembourg is a party to the following regional human rights treaties:
- European Convention on Human Rights and several of its protocols
- European Social Charter
- COE Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence
- COE Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
- European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Individuals and groups have submitted complaints of human rights violations committed by Luxembourg to the European Court of Human Rights. For example, the Court found Luxembourg violated the rights to freedom of expression and to respect for private and family life when authorities searched two journalists’ homes after they published articles alleging tax fraud by a minister. See ECtHR, Roemen and Schmit v. Luxembourg, no. 51772/99, ECHR 2003, Judgment of 25 May 2003. Additionally, the Court may grant interim measures to protect people in urgent situations of risk in Luxembourg.
As a State party to the European Social Charter, Luxembourg must submit yearly reports to the European Committee of Social Rights on its implementation of the Charter’s provisions.
United Nations System
As a UN Member State, Luxembourg is subject to the oversight of various UN human rights bodies, including the Human Rights Council and its Universal Periodic Review and thematic special procedures. As a party to specific universal human rights treaties, Luxembourg’s policies and practices are monitored by UN treaty bodies. It has accepted the complaints procedure of six treaty bodies.
Luxembourg has ratified the following UN human rights treaties:
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
- Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
- Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
- Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
- International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
Luxembourg has also ratified the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR aimed at abolishing the death penalty, and optional protocols to the CRC addressing children in armed conflict and the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography. Luxembourg has a duty to submit State reports to the UN treaty body associated with each UN human rights treaty Luxembourg has ratified. These reports must be submitted on a periodic basis and describe the steps taken to implement the treaty provisions.
Luxembourg has also ratified optional protocols and made appropriate declarations allowing individuals to submit complaints against the State alleging violations of the ICCPR, CEDAW, CAT, CRPD, CRC, and CERD. Additionally, certain UN treaties contain inquiry procedures, which allow the UN treaty body to consider allegations of grave or systematic human rights violations. Luxembourg has accepted the inquiry procedures of the CAT, CEDAW, CRC, and CRPD.
In March 2001, Luxembourg extended a standing invitation to UN special procedures, which means that any such mandate holders are welcome to conduct visits in Luxembourg.
For more information on Luxembourg’s engagement with UN human rights bodies, visit http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/ENACARegion/Pages/LUIndex.aspx.
Last updated: February 2020