Albania is a Member State of the Council of Europe (COE) and of the United Nations (UN), and has human rights obligations at the regional and universal levels.
Regional: European System
As a Member of the COE, Albania has ratified the European Convention on Human Rights and is subject to the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights. Albania has ratified the Revised European Social Charter, but has not authorized the European Committee of Social Rights to decide collective complaints against it. Its human rights policies and practices are also monitored by the COE Commissioner for Human Rights, who identifies gaps in human rights protection, conducts country visits, engages in dialogue with States, and prepares thematic reports and advice.
Individuals and groups have submitted complaints of human rights violations committed by Albania to the European Court of Human Rights. For example, the Court held that Albania violated its obligations to prevent inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment by holding a man with paranoid schizophrenia in harsh prison conditions and denying him proper medical care. See ECtHR, Dybeku v. Albania, no. 41153/06, ECHR 2007, Judgment of 18 December 2007. Additionally, the Court may grant interim measures to protect people in urgent situations of risk in Albania.
As a State party to the Revised European Social Charter, Albania must submit regular reports to the European Committee of Social Rights on its implementation of the Charter’s provisions.
Albania is a party to the following regional human rights treaties:
- European Convention on Human Rights and several of its protocols
- Revised European Social Charter
- COE Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence
- COE Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
- European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
United Nations System
As a UN Member State, Albania is subject to the oversight of various UN human rights bodies, including the Human Rights Council and its Universal Periodic Review and thematic special procedures. As a party to specific universal human rights treaties, Albania’s policies and practices are monitored by UN treaty bodies. It has accepted the complaints procedure of four treaty bodies.
Albania has ratified the following UN human rights treaties:
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
- Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
- Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (CED)
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
- Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
- Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
- International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
- International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW)
Albania has also ratified the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR aimed at abolishing the death penalty, and optional protocols to the CRC addressing children in armed conflict and the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography. Albania has a duty to submit State reports to the UN treaty body associated with each UN human rights treaty Albania has ratified. These reports must be submitted on a periodic basis and describe the steps Albania has taken to implement the treaty.
Albania has also ratified optional protocols or made appropriate declarations allowing individuals to submit complaints against the State alleging violations of the ICCPR, CEDAW, CED, and CRC. Additionally, certain UN treaties establish inquiry procedures, which allow the UN treaty body to consider allegations of grave or systematic human rights violations. Albania has accepted the inquiry procedures of the CAT, CED, CEDAW, and CRC.
On December 2, 2009, Albania extended a standing invitation to UN special procedures, welcoming any special procedure mandate holder to conduct a visit to Albania. For example, the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children visited Albania in October 2005 and published its visit report in March 2006.
For more information on Albania’s engagement with UN human rights bodies, visit http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/ENACARegion/Pages/ALIndex.aspx.
Last updated: July 2019