Norway is a Member State of the Council of Europe (COE) and of the United Nations (UN), and has human rights obligations at the regional and universal levels.
Regional: European System
As a Member of the COE, Norway has ratified the European Convention on Human Rights and is subject to the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights. Norway has ratified the Revised European Social Charter, and has authorized the European Committee of Social Rights to decide collective complaints against it. Its human rights policies and practices are also monitored by the COE Commissioner for Human Rights, who identifies gaps in human rights protection, conducts country visits, engages in dialogue with States, and prepares thematic reports and advice.
Individuals and groups have submitted complaints of human rights violations committed by Norway to the European Court of Human Rights. For example, the Court held Finland violated the right to religion when authorities required children of the Norwegian Humanist Association to participate in lessons on Christianity and religion at their primary school. See ECtHR, Folgero and Others v. Norway, no. 15472/02, ECHR 2007, Judgment of 29 June 2007. Additionally, the Court may grant interim measures to protect people in urgent situations of risk in Norway.
As a State party to the Revised European Social Charter, Norway must submit regular reports to the European Committee of Social Rights on its implementation of the Charter’s provisions. The Committee has also decided collective complaints against Norway. For example, the Committee addressed a law requiring seamen to retire upon reaching age 62 and held that it constituted age-based discrimination because the age-limit was not sufficiently justified. See ECSR, Fellesforbundet for Sjøfolk (FFFS) v. Norway, Complaint No. 74/2011, Merits, 2 July 2013.
Norway is a party to the following regional human rights treaties:
- European Convention on Human Rights and several of its protocols
- Revised European Social Charter
- COE Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence
- COE Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
- European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
United Nations System
As a UN Member State, Norway is subject to the oversight of various UN human rights bodies, including the Human Rights Council and its Universal Periodic Review and thematic special procedures. As a party to specific universal human rights treaties, Norway’s policies and practices are monitored by UN treaty bodies. It has accepted the complaints procedure of four treaty bodies.
Norway has ratified the following UN human rights treaties:
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
- Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
- Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (CED)
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
- Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
- Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
- International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
Norway has also ratified the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR aimed at abolishing the death penalty, and optional protocols to the CRC addressing children in armed conflict and the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography. Norway has a duty to submit State reports to the UN treaty body associated with each UN human rights treaty Norway has ratified. These reports must be submitted on a periodic basis and describe the steps taken to implement the treaty provisions.
Norway has also ratified optional protocols and made appropriate declarations allowing individuals to submit complaints against the State alleging violations of the ICCPR, CEDAW, CAT, and CERD. Additionally, certain UN treaties contain inquiry procedures, which allow the UN treaty body to consider allegations of grave or systematic human rights violations. Norway has accepted the inquiry procedures of the CAT and CEDAW.
On March 26, 1999, Norway extended a standing invitation to UN special procedures, which means that any such mandate holders are welcome to conduct visits in Norway. For example, the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention went on a mission to Norway in 2007 and published its visit report later that year.
For more information on Norway’s engagement with UN human rights bodies, visit http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/ENACARegion/Pages/NOIndex.aspx.
Last updated: February 2020