Category Archives: civil society

September 2019: UN Treaty Bodies, Human Rights Council, And Regional Bodies in Session

Human Rights Council in Session
Credit: UN Photo/Jean-Marc Ferré

In September, universal and regional human rights bodies and experts will review States’ compliance with their human rights obligations through the consideration of State and civil society reports and country visits. Three United Nations treaty bodies and one pre-sessional working group will hold sessions to assess States’ progress regarding the rights of persons with disabilities, children, and migrant workers. The Human Rights Council will consider the overall human rights situations in 14 countries. Nine UN special procedures will conduct country visits in September. Additionally, the UN Working Group on enforced or involuntary disappearances will hold a session in Geneva, Switzerland. Of the regional bodies, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR), the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR), the European Committee of Social Rights (ECSR) will be in session, and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) will hold three Grand Chamber hearings.

The UN treaty body sessions may be watched via UN Web TV. The public hearings of the AfCHPR, IACtHR, IACHR, and ECtHR may be viewed via the AfCHPR’s YouTube page, the IACtHR’s Vimeo page, the IACHR’s YouTube page, and the ECtHR’s website, respectively.

To view human rights bodies’ past and future activities, visit the IJRC Hearings & Sessions Calendar.

UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies

Three of the 10 UN human rights treaty bodies, the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Pre-sessional Working Group, the Committee on the Rights of the Child, and the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families will meet this month to review certain States parties’ implementation of their treaty obligations. Through the State reporting procedure, treaty bodies review States’ reports and responses to a specific list of issues, receive additional information from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and national human rights institutions (NHRIs), engage in an interactive dialogue with each State’s representatives, and then adopt concluding observations detailing the progress and remaining challenges in the State’s implementation of the treaty. Through a simplified reporting procedure, treaty bodies may invite States to respond only to questions (list of issues) prepared by the treaty body, rather than submitting a comprehensive report and also responses to a subsequent list of issues.

Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) will continue its 22nd Session in Geneva, Switzerland. The session started on August 26 and will end on September 20, 2019. Based on its tentative programme of work, the CRPD held interactive dialogues with Albania, Ecuador, and Myanmar in August to assess their implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In September, the CRPD will hold interactive dialogues with Australia, El Salvador, Greece, India, Iraq, and Kuwait. Additionally, the CRPD will consider list of issues prior to reporting for Canada and Ukraine to address in its simplified reporting procedure.

Civil society members who would like to attend the CRPD’s session must register through the Indico system before September 20, 2019. To view session documents, including State reports and civil society submissions, visit the CRPD’s 22nd Session webpage. For more information on the CRPD, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

Following the CRPD’s 22nd Session, the CRPD will hold its 12th Pre-sessional Working Group from September 23 to September 27, 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. The Working Group will begin its review of State reports from Djibouti, France, Japan, Lao, Mexico, Singapore, Switzerland, and Venezuela to assess their compliance with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Additionally, the Working Group will consider list of issues prior to reporting from Mauritius and Slovakia. Civil society members who would like to participate in the Committee’s pre-sessional working group must register through the Indico system before September 26, 2019.

Committee on the Rights of the Child

The Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) will hold its 82nd Session from September 9 to September 27, 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. The tentative programme of work for the session indicates that the CRC will conduct interactive dialogues with Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mozambique, Portugal, and the Republic of Korea to assess their compliance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The CRC will also consider the State report of Georgia for its compliance with the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and review Georgia’s and Panama’s State reports to assess their compliance with the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.

Civil society members wishing to attend the CRC’s session must register through the Indico system before September 27, 2019. To view session documents, including State reports and civil society submissions, visit the CRC’s 82nd Session webpage. For more information on the CRC, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

Committee on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

The Committee on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW) will hold its 31st Session from September 2 to September 11, 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. The provisional agenda for the session indicates that the CMW will conduct interactive dialogues with Argentina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Colombia to assess their compliance with the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. The CMW will also consider and adopt list of issues for Belize and Burkina Faso ahead of those States’ interactive dialogue.

According to the information note for civil society organizations and NHRIs, individuals interested in attending the session must register through the Indico system by September 11, 2019. To view session documents, including State reports and civil society submissions, visit the CMW’s 31st Session webpage. For more information on the CMW, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

Human Rights Council

The Human Rights Council, an intergovernmental deliberative body, will hold its 42nd Session from September 9 to 27, 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. According to the session agenda, the Human Rights Council will review reports from the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, the UN Secretary General, outcome reports from the Universal Periodic Review Working Group on specific States, and reports from UN special procedures mandate holders. The list of reports is available on the session’s webpage.

The Human Rights Council will convene several panel discussions on topics including the rights of indigenous peoples, unilateral coercive measures and human rights, and the integration of a gender perspective in the Human Rights Council’s work and the work of its various mechanisms.

NGOs in consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) can be accredited to participate in the Human Rights Council’s sessions as observers, as described on the Council’s webpage on NGO participation. Relevant documents and further information regarding the issues that will be covered at the session, including submissions from civil society and the Council’s agenda, is available on the Human Rights Council’s 42nd Session webpage. For more information about the Human Rights Council, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

Special Procedures

Various independent human rights experts and monitoring bodies, known as UN “special procedures,” have country visits or sessions scheduled in September. Nine special rapporteurs will carry out country visits and one working group will hold a session this month.

The Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights will visit Mongolia from September 2 to September 11, 2019.

The Special Rapporteur on human rights and the environment will visit Norway from September 12 to September 23, 2019.

The Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context will visit Nigeria from September 13 to September 23, 2019.

The Independent Expert on the enjoyment of human rights by persons with albinism will visit South Africa from September 16 to September 26, 2019.

The Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights will visit Tuvalu from September 16 to September 27, 2019.

The Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health will visit Ecuador from September 17 to September 26, 2019.

The Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association will visit Zimbabwe from September 17 to September 27, 2019.

The Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers will visit Uzbekistan from September 19 to September 26, 2019.

The Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants will visit Bosnia and Herzegovina from September 24 to October 1, 2019.

The Working Group on enforced or involuntary disappearances will hold its 119th Session from September 16 to September 20, 2019, in Geneva, Switzerland.

During their country visits, these special procedures mandate holders will assess both the overall human rights situation in the country and the issues specific to their thematic focus. Experts also meet with civil society, government, and national human rights institutions when they visit a country. Their findings are published later in reports addressed to the UN Human Rights Council and the UN General Assembly. See OHCHR, Country and other visits of Special Procedures. To view the full list of forthcoming country visits, review the Special Procedures’ Visits document and visit the OHCHR website. For more information on each special procedure, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

Regional Bodies

African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights

The African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR) will continue its 54th Ordinary Session, which began on August 29 and will end on September 2, 2019, in Arusha, Tanzania. During its sessions, the AfCHPR typically holds hearings on the admissibility and merits of pending complaints alleging violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. During this session, the AfCHRP will also discuss the First International Court Forum on Human Rights, taking place from November 4 to 5, 2019 in Zanzibar, Tanzania, and the Fourth African Judicial Dialogue, taking place from October 30 to November 1, 2019 in Kampala, Uganda. For more information on the AfCHPR, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

European Committee of Social Rights

The European Committee of Social Rights (ECSR) will hold its 308th Session from September 9 to September 13, 2019 in Strasbourg, France. The agenda and the synopsis for this session will be published on the ECSR’s calendar at a later date. During its sessions, the ECSR reviews States’ reports on their implementation of the European Social Charter, considers collective complaints alleging violations of the Charter, and follows up on the Turin process to improve implementation of the Charter at the continental level. According to the ECSR’s calendar for national reporting, the ECSR will consider State reports concerning the rights of children, the family, and migrants from France, Greece, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, Bulgaria, Ireland, and Finland throughout the 2019 calendar year. The ECSR will consider simplified reports on the same topics from the Netherlands, Sweden, Croatia, Norway, Slovenia, Cyprus, and the Czech Republic throughout the 2019 calendar year. Simplified reports focus on areas of non-conformity identified in the Committee’s previous conclusions. For more information on the European Committee of Social Rights, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) will hold three Grand Chamber hearings this month. See ECtHR, Calendar of Hearings.

The ECtHR Grand Chamber will hold a hearing in the case Ukraine v. Russia (no. 20958/14) on September 11, 2019 in Strasbourg, France. This case is one of five inter-State applications pending before the ECtHR regarding events preceding and following from the Russian Federation’s assumption of control over the Crimean Peninsula and its exercise of control over separatist and armed groups in Eastern Ukraine. [ECtHR Press Release: UkraineECtHR Press Release: Adjourn] In this case, Ukraine alleges that Russia’s control over the region makes it responsible for the violation of numerous human rights listed in the European Convention on Human Rights, including the right to respect for private life (Article 8), freedom of religion (Article 9), freedom of expression (Article 10), freedom of assembly and association (Article 11), right to an effective remedy (Article 13), and the prohibition of discrimination (Article 14). [ECtHR Press Release: Ukraine] Ukraine alleges that Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea has resulted in the killings of military personnel and civilians both directly by Russian forces and through Russia’s support for violent separatist groups. The Government also alleges that Russia is responsible for the torture and other forms of ill-treatment of Ukrainians based on their ethnic origin. [ECtHR Press Release: Ukraine]

The ECtHR will also hold a Grand Chamber hearing in the case Selahattin Demirtaş v. Turkey (no. 2) (no. 14305/17) on September 18, 2019 in Strasbourg, France. This case concerns Selahattin Demirtaş, a Turkish parliamentary member who has been in pre-trial detention since 2016 on terrorism-related charges as a result of his work as a member of the Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP), a leftist, pro-Kurdish party. [ECtHR Press Release: Turkey] Demirtaş submitted a complaint before the ECtHR in February 2017, alleging that he was detained for expressing opinions criticizing Turkish political authorities in violation of Article 5 (right to liberty and security), Article 18 (limitation on use of restrictions on rights), Article 10 (freedom of expression), and Article 34 (right of individual petition) of the European Convention on Human Rights, as well as Article 3 of Protocol No. 1 (right to free elections) to the Convention. [ECtHR Press Release: Turkey] A Chamber of the ECtHR issued a judgment on November 20, 2018, finding Turkey in violation of Article 5 given that domestic authorities could not justify the duration of Demirtaş’s detention and of Article 3 of Protocol No. 1 to the Convention given that Demirtaş could not fulfill his parliamentary duties while in pre-trial detention. [ECtHR Press Release: Turkey] Additionally, the Chamber found that the fact that Demirtaş was detained during a referendum and presidential election limited his ability to participate freely in political debate, contrary to the “core concept of a democratic society” and in violation of Article 18 of the Convention. [ECtHR Press Release: Turkey] While the Court did not find that the State breached its obligations with respect to Article 34, the right of individual petition, the ECtHR found that the State had to take all necessary steps to end Demirtaş’s pre-trial detention. [ECtHR Press Release: Turkey] The State and applicant requested that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber, and the Grand Chamber accepted the request on March 18, 2019. [ECtHR Press Release: Turkey]

Finally, the ECtHR will hold a Grand Chamber hearing in the case Muhammad and Muhammad v. Romania (no. 80982/12) on September 25, 2019 in Strasbourg, France. This case concerns the removal of two Pakistani nationals from Romania. [ECtHR Press Release: Romania] The applicants were studying in Romania in 2012 when Romanian intelligence services notified them that they “pos[ed] a potential threat to national security” and a domestic court ruled them “undesirable” in Romania. [ECtHR Press Release: Romania] The applicants submitted a complaint before the ECtHR in December 2012, alleging that Romania violated Article 1 of Protocol No. 7 (procedural safeguards relating to expulsion of aliens) and Article 13 (right to an effective remedy) of the Convention. [ECtHR Press Release: Romania] A ECtHR Chamber relinquished its jurisdiction to the Grand Chamber on February 26, 2019, and the Grand Chamber accepted the request. [ECtHR Press Release: Romania]

For more information on the ECtHR, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) will continue its 62nd Special Session, which started on August 26 and will conclude on September 6, 2019, in Colombia. During its sessions, the IACtHR typically holds public hearings on the merits of individual complaints and deliberates on contentious cases alleging human rights violations. For more information on the IACtHR, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) will hold its 173rd Period of Sessions from September 23 to October 2, 2019 in Washington D.C., United States. During the session, it will hold public hearings on a range of human rights concerns in the region, including in 17 countries. The schedule of hearings is available on the IACHR website. For more information on the IACHR, visit IJRC’s Online Resource Hub.

OAS Elects Four Commissioners to Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

Second Day of OAS 49th General Assembly
Credit: OEA – OAS via Flickr

On June 28, 2019, the 49th General Assembly of the Organization of American States (OAS) re-elected Commissioners Margaret May Macaulay (Jamaica) and Esmeralda Arosemena de Troitiño (Panama) to serve a second full term on the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), and elected two new commissioners, Julissa Mantilla Falcón (Peru) and Edgar Stuardo Ralón Orellana (Guatemala). [OAS Press Release] By January 2020, when the elected commissioners begin their terms, the IACHR’s composition will consist of five female commissioners and two male commissioners – the highest female to male ratio in the history of the IACHR. Mantilla Falcón was endorsed as a qualified commissioner in the 2019 report by the Independent Panel for the Election of Inter-American Human Rights Commissioners, a part of the Initiative on Transparency and Election Monitoring housed at American University’s Washington College of Law. See Mariclaire Acosta, et al., Abridged Version of the Report from the Independent Panel of Experts for the Evaluation of Candidates for the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (2019). However, the Panel and civil society members objected to Ralón Orellana’s nomination and election, citing concerns over his limited human rights experience as well as his independence and impartiality.

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Inter-American Court to Publish Some Submissions on Implementation of Judgments

Caso Acosta y otros Vs. Nicaragua
Credit: CorteIDH via Flickr

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) has published a new agreement providing public access to certain documents submitted to the Court in relation to decided cases. [IACtHR Press Release] Specifically, the Court will now publish on its website briefs and other information on compliance with its ordered guarantees of non-repetition (whether these are submitted by the parties or by other entities or experts), as well as amicus curiae briefs, submitted during the judgment implementation phase. See I/A Court H.R., Court Agreement No. 1/19, Clarifications in Relation to the Publication of Information Contained in the Files of Cases at the Stage of Monitoring Compliance with Judgment, 11 March 2019.

While the IACtHR has long published its own orders on compliance with its judgments, it has not previously published the parties’ briefs or other submissions regarding compliance. And, while the Court publishes the parties’ “main briefs” from the merits phase, it does not publish amicus curiae briefs related to the merits. Importantly, the Court’s orders on compliance with its judgments already refer to and quote from the information it receives from the parties and others; the major change of this new policy is that the public will have direct access to submitted documents and briefs themselves, at least with regard to guarantees of non-repetition. The Court may implement the new agreement retrospectively, to publish the relevant briefs received in prior years. See id.

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New Report: Civil Society Access to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

civil society meets with IACHR

The International Justice Resource Center (IJRC) has published its second report in an ongoing series examining the barriers to civil society’s engagement with supranational human rights oversight bodies. See IJRC, Civil Society Access to International Oversight Bodies: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (2019). This edition analyzes the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), a principal autonomous organ of the Organization of American States (OAS) charged with addressing human rights conditions and human rights violations in the 35 OAS Member States. The 65-page report focuses on the informal policies and practical factors, as well as formal rules, that help or hinder civil society’s participation in IACHR sessions and other activities. The Executive Summary, which includes the report’s main findings and a complete list of recommendations to the IACHR, is available in both Spanish and English. Read more

Commission of Inquiry: Israeli Response to Gaza Demonstrations Violated Rights

2018 Gaza border protests, Bureij
Credit: מינוזיג – MinoZig via Wikimedia Commons

In a new 252-page report, the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on the protests in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (CoIOPT or Commission), established by the UN Human Rights Council, presents detailed findings related to its investigation of the demonstrations that took place in Gaza between March 30 and December 31, 2018, the Israeli security forces’ response, and the impact on civilians living in Gaza and Israel. See Report of the detailed findings of the independent international Commission of inquiry on the protests in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, 18 March 2019, UN Doc. No. A/HRC/40/CRP.2, para. 1. The CoIOPT finds Israel, Hamas (as Gaza’s de facto authority), and the Palestinian Authority, responsible for human rights violations committed in the context of these protests; notes that the Israeli security forces’ response to the demonstrations gave rise to humanitarian law violations, some of which may amount to crimes against humanity; and highlights the urgent need to revise the Israeli security forces’ rules of engagement. See id. at paras. 980-81, 985. The CoIOPT presents the report with a view to ensuring accountability, proposing concrete recommendations, and identifying State and non-State actors responsible for violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, and international criminal law — the applicable international legal framework to this situation. See id. at paras. 12-13, 37.

While the Commission faced significant limitations with respect to its ability to witness information first-hand, it relied on interviews, meetings with victims, civil society, government officials, and witnesses; it also collected thousands of documents, including medical reports, expert legal opinions, drone footage, and written submissions, among others, to support its findings. See id. at paras. 19-21, 30-36. The Israeli government has since issued a statement rejecting the report’s findings and accusing the Commission of bias against Israel. See Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel’s response to UNHRC Commission of Inquiry report, 21 March 2019. Read more

Human Rights Experts Condemn Continuing Internet Shutdowns in African Countries

ACHPR Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information, Lawrence Murugu Mute
Credit: Lawrence Mute via Twitter

A number of African countries have drawn international criticism amid a wave of internet shutdowns aimed at restricting access to information and discourse on social, economic, and political issues. Between December 2018 and January 2019, Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Gabon, and Zimbabwe cut off access to the internet in response to protests. [ACHPR Press Release: Shutdowns] Human rights groups and experts have condemned these moves as illegal acts of repression, citing violations of the rights to freedom of expression and access to information. [ACHPR Press Release: Shutdowns; OHCHR Press Release; Access Now Press Release] While the internet shutdowns in Africa contribute to a trend of increasing shutdowns around the world, the international response demonstrates that internet access is now recognized as essential to the exercise of human rights.

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Guatemala & Nicaragua: Cooperation with Human Rights Monitors Deteriorates

Press Conference by Foreign Minister of Guatemala
Credit: UN Photo/Manuel Elias

The governments of Guatemala and Nicaragua each recently issued decisions terminating cooperation with international and regional oversight bodies in critical areas of human rights, prompting strong criticism. [UN News: Nicaragua; IACHR Press Release: Guatemala; European Council Press Release] Escalating his September 2018 decision that Guatemala would not renew its agreement with a United Nations-backed anti-corruption investigatory body, the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales unilaterally decided to expel the body prior to the agreement’s expiration and ahead of the next presidential election. [UN News: CICIG; NY Times; IJRC: Oversight] Additionally, in December 2018, the Nicaraguan government, amid mounting civil unrest, announced measures effectively barring two monitoring mechanism set up by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), and stated that it would no longer accept IACHR visits. [IACHR Press Release: Nicaragua; UN News: Nicaragua] UN experts have resoundingly condemned the governments for disregarding their international legal obligations under these agreements and the human rights at stake in the absence of this oversight. [UN News: CICIG; UN News: Nicaragua]

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November 2018: United Nations and Regional Human Rights Bodies in Session

Human Rights Council Tenth Session Participants
Credit: UN Photo/Pierre-Michel Virot

In November, several universal and regional human rights bodies and experts will assess States’ compliance with their human rights obligations through the consideration of State and civil society reports, country visits, and the review of individual complaints. Five United Nations treaty bodies will meet to review States’ progress with regard to civil and political rights, women’s rights, enforced disappearances, torture, and racial discrimination. The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Working Group will also be in session and will conduct interactive dialogues with representatives from 14 States. Eleven UN special procedures will conduct country visits this month, and two UN working groups will hold sessions.

Regionally, the African Commission of Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR), the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR), the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Children (ACERWC), and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) will be holding public sessions. The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) will hear arguments in three cases.

The UN treaty body sessions, the AfCHPR’s public hearings, the public hearings of the European Court, and the public hearings of the IACHR may be watched via UN Web TV, the African Court’s YouTube channel, the European Court’s website, and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights’ website or Vimeo page, respectively. To view human rights bodies’ past and future activities, visit the IJRC Hearings & Sessions Calendar.

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Guatemala and Nicaragua Reject UN Human Rights Monitors Amid Turmoil

Protesters in Managua
Credit: By Voice of America, via Wikimedia Commons

Two Central American governments ended their cooperation with the United Nations on specific human rights initiatives and sought to exclude UN representatives from their territories in late August 2018. In Guatemala, President Jimmy Morales announced on August 31 he would not renew the mandate of the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) when it expires in 2019 and barred CICIG head Iván Velásquez from reentering the country, despite a Supreme Court order rejecting a previous attempt to expel him. [IACHR: Guatemala; NYT] Since 2007, CICIG has assisted national authorities in prosecuting corruption, and recently announced an investigation into President Morales for illegal campaign contributions. [NYT]

Also on August 31, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega rescinded an invitation to a fact-finding team from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), just after OHCHR published a report on authorities’ human rights violations against protesters since demonstrations against the Ortega government began in April 2018. [Al Jazeera; IJRC: Nicaragua] The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), OHCHR, and civil society have expressed concern at these developments. [IACHR: Guatemala; IACHR: Nicaragua; OHCHR Press Release: Concern; HRW: Nicaragua; HRW: Torture] Observers fear the crises in both countries will continue to worsen. [NYT: Authoritarianism] Read more

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