More than 160 countries adopted the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration (Compact), the first-ever intergovernmental agreement negotiated to holistically and comprehensively cover all aspects of international migration, following a two-day conference in Marrakech, Morocco that took place from December 10 to 11, 2018. [UN News: Marrakech; NYT] The document presents a framework for international cooperation and proclaims States’ commitment to protect the rights of migrants and refugees in transit or in destination countries, regardless of their reasons for leaving their country or their migration status. See Global Compact for Migration, Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, 11 July 2018, para. 11. Although the Compact received broad support, it faced opposition and withdrawal by a number of States, including the United States, claiming concerns over migration flows and national sovereignty. [NYT] While an agreement on the rights of refugees already exists, the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, protections for people in transit that do not qualify for refugee status have generally remained unprotected by law or guidelines until now. [Washington Post]
On Monday, December 17, the vast majority of UN Member States also voted to adopt the Global Compact on Refugees, despite opposition from the U.S. [UN News: Refugees] Today, December 18, is International Migrants Day, the anniversary of UN Member States’ adoption of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, in 1990. See UN, International Migrants Day.